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MENSTRUAL

MENSTRUAL

WHAT IS A MENSTRUAL PROBLEM?

Regular periods confirm the normal functionality of your body. You should have regular periods unless you are pregnant, breastfeeding, postmenopausal or have a medical condition that affects your cycle of periods. Heavy, painful and irregular periods may result in a serious health problem and is a sign of the mensuration problems. Also, irregular periods can also become a hurdle in your way of getting pregnant.
A healthy experience a monthly cycle that is known as mensuration or a period. The lining of the uterus breaks down and leaves the vagina through the vagina. Some women get through their mensuration with no or fewer concerns. Their period cycle starts and stops nearly at the same time every month. Some of the women experience a mix of physical and emotional symptoms just before and during the periods. Your doctor can help you to get a normal period cycle.

Types of menstrual problems
  • Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS) – Premenstrual syndrome is a type of any physical and psychological symptom during your cycle that may temporarily disturb your normal functioning. The symptoms may last from a few hours to many days and the severity of the symptoms varies in individuals. About 30 to 40% of the women experience symptoms which leaves the severe effects of the mensuration on the body.
  • Depression, anxiety, irritability are some of the psychological symptoms
  • Gastrointestinal symptoms like bloating
  • Swelling of fingers, ankles, and feet
  • Acne
  • Headache
  • Muscle spasm
  • Diminished libido
  • Problem with the vision
  • Infections
  • Change in appetite
  • Amenorrhea – The absence of periods for more than three monthly menstrual cycles is characterized as amenorrhea. It is basically of two types, primary and secondary. o Primary amenorrhea – When mensuration has not begun at the puberty o Secondary amenorrhea – Normal periods become irregular and it suddenly stop for three months or longer.
  • Milky nipple discharge
  • Hair loss
  • Headache
  • Vision changes
  • Excess facial hairs
  • Dysmenorrhea – It is when serious and frequent menstrual cramps happen during the mensuration. Dysmenorrhea is caused by its primary and secondary conditions. In primary dysmenorrhea, women experience abnormal uterine contractions caused due to chemical changes in the body. On the other hand, the secondary condition of dysmenorrhea is caused by other medical conditions.
  • Cramps or pain in the lower abdomen
  • Pain in lower back or pain radiating down the legs
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Tiredness
  • Weakness
  • Fainting
  • Headaches
  • Menorrhagia – It is one of the most common types of abnormal uterine bleeding which is characterized by heavy and longer bleeding. In some of the cases, the bleeding becomes so severe that it affects your day to day activities. Menorrhagia has four sub-types polymenorrhea, Oligomenorrhea, Metrorrhagia, and Postmenopausal bleeding.
    • Polymenorrhea: When there is a high frequency of mensuration.
    • Oligomenorrhea: When there is a lesser frequency or light menstrual cycles
    • Metrorrhagia: Any irregular, non-menstrual bleeding occurs between the menstrual periods
    • Postmenopausal bleeding: Any bleeding, happens for more than a year after the last normal menstrual period at menopause.
    • Symptoms: When there a need to change the sanitary napkin in every hour it is considered as a symptom of Menorrhagia.
Diagnosis of menstrual problems
  • Blood tests
  • Pap test
  • Ultrasound (pelvic): The doctor uses the ultrasound frequency to create an image of the pelvic organs.
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): Large magnets and radiofrequency helps to create a detailed image of the reproductive organs.
  • Laparoscopy: It is a minor surgical procedure in which a laparoscope is used to see the pelvis and abdomen area to detect any abnormal growth.
  • Hysteroscopy: A hysteroscope is inserted through the vagina to have examined the cervix canal and interior of the uterus.
  • Biopsy: Biopsy is also known as endometrial. The doctor removes the tissue samples from the lining of the uterus with the help of a needle and checks for cancer or the presence of abnormal cells.
  • Dilation and curettage (D&C): It is a procedure to remove the tissue (cavity) from the uterus. It is performed to diagnose and treat the uterine conditions, such as heavy bleeding or cleaning the uterus lining after a miscarriage or abortion.
Treatments of menstrual problems

Your doctor can check to examine you and help you determine the type of menstrual disorder treatment that you need to reduce its symptoms:

  • Regulation of menstrual cycle: Hormones can be prescribed to prevent heavy bleeding.
  • Pain control: Mild pains or cramps can be lowered down with the help of the pain-relieving medicines or the heating pads.
  • Change in lifestyle: Regular exercises and a healthy diet may help you with the stabilization of your periods.
  • Stress: If there is emotional or mental stress, then you should consider counseling.
  • Underactive thyroid: If the period stops due to underactive thyroid, then the doctor may prescribe you a treatment with thyroxine.
  • Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): An appropriate treatment would be suggested by the doctor, in case PCOS has led to excess weight.
  • Premature ovary failure: Hormone replacement therapy may bring mensuration back in the cycle
  • Other treatments depending on the doctor’s suggestion such as diuretics, prostaglandin inhibitors, hormone supplements, oral contraceptives, tranquilizers, supplements (vitamin & mineral), antidepressants, surgery.

Mensuration or periods can stop for a number of reasons. Irregular periods does not indicate that a person is infertile or can not conceive. If you are facing irregular periods for three months or more then you should consult a physician or a gynaecologist. For more information about menstrual problems or menstrual disorders treatment, schedule an appointment with us.

Author: Dr. Chetna Jain

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