When a person is unable to reproduce by natural means in known as infertility. It happens when a couple is struggling to conceive a baby even after having unprotected sex. It may be that one of the partners is not able to contribute to conception, or that a woman is unable to carry a pregnancy to full term. Infertility is often decided as not being able to conceive after a year (12 months) of having regular intercourse without using the birth control options.

Symptoms of infertility

The major symptom of infertility is not being able to get pregnant and possibly there are no other obvious symptoms for it. A woman with the symptoms of infertility may have irregular or absent menstrual periods. In man’s case, fertility may have some signs of hormonal problems, including hair growth or sexual function.

Causes of infertility

The causes of infertility in couples are present since birth, and sometime they develop later in life.

  • In about one third cases of infertility, there is an issue with the man
  • In about one third cases of infertility, there is an issue with the woman
  • In remaining cases, there is issue with the couple (both man and woman)
Male Infertility/h5>
  • Abnormal sperm production or function: The male ejaculates a lower number of sperm or the sperm cannot “swim” or not able to reach the egg. Also, the unusual shape makes it harder to fertilize an egg.
  • Problems with the delivery of the sperm: Problems occur due to premature ejaculation, cystic fibrosis, blockage in the testicles, or premature ejaculation.
  • Overexposure to the pesticides, chemicals or radiation, smoking, alcohol consumption, steroids, cancer treatment through radiations.
  • High blood pressure and depression also affect fertility.
Female Infertility
  • Ovulation disorders: It affects the eggs released from the ovaries. It is a type of hormonal disorder in females and hormonal disorders can affect the menstrual cycle. Eating disorders, excessive workouts, and tumors can also cause ovulation disorders.
  • Uterine or cervical abnormalities: It has abnormalities with the cervix, polyps in the uterus. Benign (non-cancerous) tumors grow in the uterine walls and blocking the fallopian tubes or stopping the fertilized egg implantation in the uterus also causes infertility.
  • Damage or blockage to the fallopian tube: Females usually get this from the pelvic inflammatory disease caused by sexually transmitted infection (STI), endometriosis or adhesions.
  • Endometriosis: The endometrial tissue grows outside the uterus and affects the function of the ovaries, uterus and fallopian tubes.
  • Early menopause: When your ovary stops working and mensuration ends before the age of 40.
  • Cancer Treatments: Cancer treatments such as radiation and chemotherapy affect fertility.
Risk factors associated with the infertility
  • Age: The women’s fertility declines with age, it starts around the mid-30s and rapidly goes down after the age of 37. The number of eggs and their quality lowers down with the age. Also, the health problems with growing age affect infertility.
  • Tobacco consumption: Consumption of tobacco may reduce fertility. Smoking also reduces the effectiveness of fertility treatment.
  • Alcohol consumption: The consumption of alcohol may also increase the chances of infertility.
  • Alcohol consumption: The consumption of alcohol may also increase the chances of infertility.
  • Overweight: Being overweight increases the risk of infertility.
  • Underweight: Women who follow a very low-calorie diet and are underweight are at the risk of infertility.
  • Exercise: Women who lack exercise contributes to obesity, also they are at higher risk.
Types of infertility

There are two types of infertility, primary and secondary.

  • Primary infertility: When you are not being able to conceive after a year (12 months) of having regular intercourse without using the birth control options is known as primary infertility.
  • Secondary infertility: When you are able to get pregnant once, but now you are unable is characterized as secondary infertility.

Tests for men

  • Semen analysis
  • Hormone analysis
  • Genetic testing
  • Testicular biopsy
  • Imaging (Brain MRI or transrectal or scrotal ultrasound)
  • Physical examination

Tests for Women

  • Ovulation testing
  • Hysterosalpingography
  • Ovarian reserve testing
  • Laparoscopy
  • Hormone analysis
  • Imaging tests
  • Hysteroscopy
  • Laparoscopy
Treatments of infertility

For Men

  • Change in lifestyle: Improving your lifestyle and behavior can improve the chances of pregnancy. Change in lifestyle includes removing harmful substances (alcohol, tobacco, etc), improving the frequency and timing of intercourse, regular exercises, and many others.
  • Medications: Medication helps in improving the sperm count and helps in achieving a successful pregnancy.
  • Surgery: Surgeries are performed to remove the sperm blockage and restoring fertility in males.
  • Sperm retrieval: When there is no or less sperm count in the ejaculated fluid, then the sperm retrieval technique is performed to obtain sperm.

For Women

  • Stimulating ovulation with fertility eggs: Fertility drugs are used for the female who are infertile because of ovulation disorders.
  • Intrauterine insemination: Healthy sperm is placed in the uterus when your ovary releases the eggs to be fertilized.
  • Surgery: Surgeries such as endometriosis, pelvic adhesions, laparoscopic, etc. are performed to restore fertility.

For Men

  • Avoid the use of tobacco and alcohol
  • Avoid high-temperature places such as bathtub and sauna
  • Avoid overexposure to radiations, pesticides, and chemicals
  • Limit the use of medications that may lead to infertility
  • Regular exercises

For women

  • Stop smoking
  • Avoid the usages of alcohol and street drugs
  • Limit your caffeine intake
  • Regular exercises, and weight management

Dr. Chetna Jain’s Clinik offers the best infertility treatment in Gurgaon (India). Our specialist Dr. Chetna Jain is one of the infertility specialists in Gurgaon (India) for women. Our Clinik offers the best services and has the highest rate of successful treatments for infertility.

Author: Dr. Chetna Jain

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